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In the 1880s the era of the mass-produced fountain pen finally began.
The dominant American producers in this pioneer era were Waterman, of New York City, and Wirt, based in Bloomsburg, Pennsylvania. In 1898, George Safford Parker released the Parker Jointless, named so because its barrel was single-piece to prevent leakage.
Recently, Fountain Pens have made a resurgence, with many manufacturers of fountain pens saying sales are climbing.
This has led to a new wave of casual use fountain pens and custom ink manufacturers, who utilize online stores to easily and cheaply sell fountain pens.
An early historical mention of what appears to be a reservoir pen dates back to the 10th century. 974) in his Kitab al-Majalis wa 'l-musayarat, the Fatimid caliph Al-Mu'izz li-Din Allah demanded a pen that would not stain his hands or clothes, and was provided with a pen that held ink in a reservoir, allowing it to be held upside-down without leaking.
There is compelling evidence that a working fountain pen was constructed and used during the Renaissance by artist and inventor Leonardo da Vinci.
Progress in developing a reliable pen was slow until the mid-19th century because of an imperfect understanding of the role that air pressure plays in the operation of pens.
The first fountain pens making use of all these key ingredients appeared in the 1850s.
In the 1870s Duncan Mac Kinnon, a Canadian living in New York City, and Alonzo T.
Cross of Providence, Rhode Island, created stylographic pens with a hollow, tubular nib and a wire acting as a valve.
Stylographic pens are now used mostly for drafting and technical drawing but were very popular in the decade beginning in 1875.Waterman soon outstripped Wirt, along with many companies that sprang up to fill the new and growing fountain pen market. The section assembly fit into the pen's end like a cork stopper; any leaked ink was kept inside the nib.